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3.1 Introduction

In this chapter, the methodology chosen for this study is presented, showing the different methods applied to answer the research questions and to arrive at the conclusions. It will explain what methods are chosen and why specific methods were chosen. The chapter includes the type of research, the population of the study, sampling and sampling technique, data collection, data collection procedure, as well as the method of data analysis.

3.2 Types of Research

Considering the research objectives, this research takes the form of a quantitative type. The quantitative approach can be described as a research strategy that emphasizes quantification in the collection and analysis of data. From the studies of Mark, Lewis and Thornhill (2019), quantitative research can be grouped into three (3) main categories, namely descriptive, exploratory, and explanatory. In this study, a descriptive research design is chosen because of its ability to use rudiments in quantitative approaches. Descriptive studies are carried out purposefully to describe characteristics or functions. Examining teachers’ perceptions on the use of mobile phones in the teaching and learning and determining the challenges to the use of mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language involve a description of how mobile phones could be used effectively to deliver lessons. In descriptive studies, more emphasis is placed on studying a situation or a problem to give details of the relationships between two or more variables.

3.3 Population of the Study

A population in research, according to Perneger, Courvoisier, Hudelson and Gayet-Ageron (2015), is a group of elements or cases, whether individuals, objects, or events, that conform to specific criteria and of which we intend to generalize the result of the research. In this study, the available population or target for the study consists of Management and English teachers of selected schools indicated in Table 1. Management of the schools considered in the study include Headmaster or Headmistress and the two Assistants, as well as Departmental Heads. These management heads were include because of their managerial role of designing and implementing policies in the school and their immense experience in the teaching and learning process.

3.4 Sample and Sampling Technique

The study determined the sample size using the census sampling technique. In the census, each and every unit of population is researched. A census sampling is a statistical investigation in which the data are collected for each and every element/unit of the population. It is also known as ‘complete enumeration’ or ‘100% enumeration’ or ‘complete survey’. Therefore, all the 98 respondents were considered for the study.

3.5 Data Collection

3.5.1 Types of Data

The study adopted a quantitative type of data. This data was sourced from questionnaires administered to respondents.

3.5.2 Sources of Data

The study used only primary source of data. Primary data is data collected during a study obtained through direct contacts from respondents. A good part of making use of primary data is that it represents the specific reason of the intended research (Basu, 2017). The questions that were asked by the researchers were those pertaining to the research and are of relevance to the study. The primary data has been described as the most efficient means of data source because it is connected directly to the respondent (Basu, 2017).

3.5.3 Instrument of Data Collection

The research instrument to be used for the collection of data will be a questionnaire. The questionnaire will be suitable for this analysis because it is realistic and is considered cost-effective in gathering data from a large number of people within a short time. The questionnaire will be categorized into four sections. The first section will contain questions that sourced data on the demographic characteristics of the respondents. The aspect of the demographic data contained variables like gender, age and working experience. The second section contains questions on teachers’ perceptions on the use of mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language. The third section had questions that determine the challenges to the use of mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language. Section 4 will have questions on the interventions that could be adopted to effectively integrate mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language. The questions on second and third questions will have both closed and open-ended items. The open-ended items require respondents to complete questions in their own words. On the other hand, the close-ended items required the respondent to tick answers they thought were appropriate for a particular response. The close-end items were in the form of like scale (1 = Strongly Disagree, 2 = Disagree, 3 = Neutral, 4 = Agree, 5 = Strongly Agree). 

3.5.4 Instrument Reliability

A pilot study will be adopted. This method is a measure of validity obtained by administering the questionnaire to some respondents who will go through the questions and suggest any changes that might be beneficial.  Three sets of questionnaires will be piloted with three lecturers. Suggestions and recommendations from the lecturers would be incorporated before the questionnaires will be distributed

3.6 Procedure of Data Collection

The researchers will write a cover letter stating the aims and purpose of the study and the need for the participants to give their consent and co-operation. The researchers will carry their ID cards to serve as a witness whenever the need arises. The covering letter will ensure that their respondents’ privacy was maintained. Every effort will be made to safeguard respondents’ privacy and confidentiality.

The researchers will ensure that the names of the participants in the study are not revealed or traceable to a third party. The analysis prevented any descriptive details that could identify the respondents. In addition, all heads of schools will be contacted, and the purpose of the study explained to them. From there, the respondents will be identified and contacted. Time will be arranged with those who might not have time to collect the questionnaires or receive an explanation. The distribution and collection of the questionnaire is schedule to take place in two weeks.

With the onset of Covid-19, the researchers will ensure that all the protocols such as the wearing of nose masks, washing of hands and maintaining social distances are adhered to. In addition, provision will be made for respondents who might not want to physically meet the respondents. In this case, the questionnaires would be send to them on the internet to be filled.

3.7 Method of Data Analysis

The data will be collected and entered directly into the Statistical Package for Social Sciences software and organized into various themes and categories based on the research questions and the purpose of the study. The statistical analysis used for the analysis was descriptive. For the descriptive analysis, percentages, means, and standard deviations will be used. Objective one examines the teachers’ perceptions on the use of mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language. Objective two examine the challenges to the use of mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language. The study will adopt the one sample t-test. The frequencies and percentages were used to examine the interventions that could be adopted to effectively integrate mobile phones in the teaching and learning of English Language.

3.7 Ethical Consideration

The researchers took into consideration several ethical issues. First, the study will ensure that all COVID-19 protocols including the wearing of facemask use of sanitizers and ensuring social distance are enforced. Privacy will also be maintained for the respondents. The questionnaire will not ask respondents to indicate their names or contacts. Instead, the questionnaire will be assigned identification numbers. All information will be kept strictly confidential; and all data collected will be used for this research, and nothing else. All the respondents will received explanations of the study processes and informed consent before participating in the research. In addition, all sources of literature will be acknowledged. Personal bias will be avoided during the entire study.

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