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Perception is the way in which something is regarded, understood, or interpreted. This study adopted and modified the information success model in 1992 to measure the perception of lecturers on the adoption of m-learning (Shahzad, Hassan, Aremu, Hussain, & Lodhi, 2020). The model comprehensively described four different dimensions: system quality, information quality, user satisfaction and net benefits.

2.2.1 System quality

System quality refers to the quality of the website or an m-learning portal through which learners can access the courses or learning material without difficulty. The more a website is user-friendly and structured, the more it will make system quality better (Zheng et al., 2013). System quality as per DeLone and McLean (2003) measured in terms of ease of use, reliability, functionality, its integration and its reliability. It has been considered that technical components of a particular m-learning system more or less similar to that of an information system. Coman et al (2020) also gave various measures for an effective system quality like an m-learning system should be easy to use and have features which are user-friendly; it should also contain features which are appealing to users. Landrum (2020) suggested ease of use, reliability, maintenance, well organized, personalization, help option available, security, usability, user-friendly, availability and interactivity for determining system quality. Islam (2012) emphasized on the system quality as a tool to motivate students to continue m-learning, and he mentioned four characteristics relevant to system quality of an m-learning system: access, ease of use, navigation and reliable. Suresh et al (2018) emphasize control, flexibility, functionality, compatibility, accessibility and well-designed as important features of system quality.

These criteria are necessary to check as Chopra et al (2019) identified in his study that if the website is not properly managed and designed, it cannot lead to the desired outcome, that is students’ learning with self-discipline and self-interest, as poorly managed website can reduce the motivation and interest of students which form the basis of involvement in m-learning. Sun, Tsai, Finger, Chen and Yeh (2008) concluded that the structure of the website is on priority for online students.

2.2.2 Information quality

Information quality can be defined as the quality of content. In almost all the studies on m-learning, content quality has been added as a dimension (Gudigantala et al., 2011). In certain studies, it has been mentioned as instructional material, and it includes documents, audio and video. Suresh et al (2018) mentioned that arrangement of learning assignments with the engaging tasks can help learners in the process of learning and support teachers in delivering learned principles, skills and knowledge in the workplace to reach a level of satisfaction. Aini, Budiarto, Putra and Rahardja (2020) also gave various measures for an effective information quality like an m-learning system should work in the direction of providing exact, up-to-date and sufficient information at the right time which should be relevant to the workplace and should be easy in terms of understanding and learning.

The model which is used in most of the studies for understanding the aspect of informational quality in m-learning was Delone and McLean (2003) (Pérez-Pérez, Serrano-Bedia, & García-Piqueres, 2020; Salloum, Al-Emran, Shaalan, & Tarhini, 2019; Shahzad et al., 2020). In these studies, researchers determined, information quality broadly identified various parameters such as the appropriate format of the content, accuracy, relevancy and information presented on the portal which represented the quality output. Further, information quality was identified as the most effective measure for an m-learning course out of its two support elements which were system quality and service quality which has been mentioned in the Delone and McLean Model of the information system.

2.2.3 User satisfaction

Maglajlic and Gütl (2012) defined user satisfaction as the expected amount of learning accumulated through a particular m-learning system. Various studies emphasized the importance of user satisfaction in measuring the success of mobile phone usage in teaching and learning (Samarasinghe, 2012). User satisfaction can be measured in terms of user experience, its functions and its utility to the end user. Nassoura (2020) illustrated that user satisfaction is a tool to measure how much an m-learning system able to accomplish the needs and requirements of users which subsequently leads to strengthening satisfaction. Mpungose and Khoza (2020) described user satisfaction in terms of content quality, the usability of the system and technical aspects. Coman et al (2020) stressed the user satisfaction dimension as a crucial determinant of the theory of m-learning systems. Several researchers have mentioned that a system can be effective if it adds something useful to the learner (Siagian, Sinambela, & Wau, 2020; Suresh et al., 2018).

2.2.4 Net benefits

Lee and Martin (2017) focused on analyzing net benefits are crucial to the success of an m-learning system. Chopra et al (2019) described net benefits as the degree to which the end goals (knowledge and desired skills) are achievable by the learner. They further concluded that e-learning effectiveness has been measured by various authors by analyzing learner’s performance. DeLone and McLean (2003) net benefits variable is a combination of two dimensions, i.e. individual impact and organizations impact. Individual impact refers to an achievement of the final objective of the user after completing a course from a particular m-learning system. This achievement could be anything like better scores in examination or better employability (Baticulon et al., 2020). These impacts happen when the end user is able to apply knowledge, gathered from the information on an m-learning system, into his/her job efficiently and effectively (Stav et al., 2010). DeLone and McLean (2003) net benefits are information recall, effectiveness and quality of decision-making capability, confidence generated in making decisions, improved productivity of the user and willingness of a user to pay for a particular information

Pérez-Pérez et al (2020) discovered three dimensions for measuring m-learning effectiveness of satisfaction, saving of time as well as cost and improved performance in conducting operations. Nurul, Mohamad, Salam and Bakar (2014) conducted research on evaluating the effectiveness of an information system in higher educational institutions in which he categorized various dimensions to measure the effectiveness of the system or net benefits obtained to students, some of which, that are related to students are educational satisfaction, academic performance, personal development and career development. Chiu and Wang (2008) termed net benefit as value, and their main focus was on the utility of a system and achievement of a user by using a particular system.

2.3 Use of Mobile Phones in Teaching English Language

Using technology is an inevitable part of almost every aspect of life and educational environments are no exception (Hashemifardnia, Namaziandost & Esfahani,2018). Recent developments in technology have shown that technical assistance is not limited to computers anymore and almost all the capabilities of computers have been fit into mobile devices, such as phones and tablets, which have increased access to technology in many classrooms (Hashemifardnia et al.,2018). Using the mobile device in education opened a new way for the teaching and learning process. In fact, mobile devices are effective tools for language learning and have a positive effect on the development of language skills (Chang & Hsu, 2011).

Using different kinds of applications on a mobile phone, tablet and iPad can enable students to learn the English language namely grammar better (Wang, 2016). They provide a situation that allows students to assess their knowledge on specific topics such as verbs, grammar points, prepositions, tenses, etc (Wang, 2016). Munir, Amelia, Issham, and Afiqah (2012) claim that teaching grammar through mobile may be a possible pedagogical tool that will offer benefits to students. According to Azizan and Gunasegaran (2013), the mobile-based approach to teaching and learning English grammar is unique in that it allows the language learners to benefit from the learning process in a ubiquitous and more personalized manner. This approach can also enrich, enliven, or add variety to the conventional method of grammar learning as it is digitally designed, flexible and mobile – i.e., anytime and anywhere (Azizan & Gunasegaran,2013).

Mobile phones are considered as very efficient instruments for general language learning (Fallahkhair, Pemberton, & Griffiths, 2007), have an advantage on language skills acquisition (Chang & Hsu, 2011), stimulate language learning attitudes and motivation of learners, and promote learner interaction, communication, and knowledge building (Samad, Ihsan, & Khalid, 2021).

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